It includes several methods as follows:
- BASS METHOD OR INTRASULCULAR METHOD:Technique:
- Place the head of a soft brush parallel to the occlusal plane, with the brush head covering three teeth, beginning at the most distal (far located) tooth in the arch.
- Place the bristles at the margin of gingiva (gums), and establish an angle of 45 degrees to the long axis of the teeth.
- Exert gentle vibratory pressure, using short back and forth motions without dislodging the tips of the bristles. This forces the ends of the bristles into the sulci as well into the interproximal embrasures and should produce perceptible blanching of the gingiva.
- Complete 20 strokes in the same position
- Lift the brush, move it anteriorly and repeat the process for next three teeth. The brush should be inserted vertically for cleaning the lingual surfaces of anterior teeth. Press the heel of the brush into the gingival sulci and proximal surfaces at a45 degree angle to the long axis of the teeth. Activate the brush with 20 short vibratory strokes.
- To reach occlusal surfaces, press the bristles firmly into pits and fissures. Activate the brush into 20 short back and forth strokes, advancing section by section until all posterior teeth in all quadrants are cleaned.
For cleaning distal surfaces of the last tooth in the arch, mouth should be widely opened and tip of the brush should be vibrated for 20 times against that particular surface.
- It is easy to master.
- It is concentrated on the cervical and interproximal portions of the teeth, where most of the dental plaque detrimental to the gingiva is located.
- Activating the brush cleans the facial surfaces but misses the interproximal surfaces and surfaces along the gingival margin.
- Attached gingiva and alveolar mucosa can get traumatized.
- STILLMAN’S METHOD:
- Soft or medium, multitufted brush should be placed with the bristle ends placed partly on the cervical portion of the teeth and partly on the gingiva, pointing towards the apex and directed at an angle of 45 degrees to the long axis of teeth.
- Pressure is applied laterally against the gingival margin to produce a perceptible blanching.
- The brush is activated with 20 short back and forth strokes and is simultaneously moved in a coronal direction along the attached gingiva, the gingival margin and tooth surface. This process is repeated on all the teeth.
- It removes soft deposits from cervical areas.
- It may be recommended for cleaning areas with progressing gingival recession and root exposure to prevent abrasive tissue destruction.
- FONES/ROLL METHOD:Technique:
The bristles are first directed apically and then swept in an occlusal direction with a rolling motion.
- It is popular because it is very easy to learn.
- It takes shorter time.
- It is a preferable technique for physically or emotionally handicapped individuals.
- It provides good gingival stimulation.
Rolled-gingival margins prevent removal of plaque from sulcus area.
- CHARTER’S METHOD:
- A soft or medium, multitufted brush is placed on the tooth with bristles pointing towards the crown at a 45 degree angle to long axis of the teeth.
- The sides of bristles are flexed against the gingiva and the back and forth vibratory motion is used to massage the gingiva.
This method is effective particularly in cases with receded Interdental papillae, it is suitable for gentle plaque removal and gingival massage, when using soft brush, and this technique can be recommended for temporary cleaning in areas of healing wounds after periodontal surgery.
- SCRUB TECHNIQUE:
- It is the simplest method.
- Consists of merely placing the bristles next to the teeth and moving them back and forth or scrubbing.
ADVANTAGE: It is easy to master.
DISADVANTAGE: Poor plaque removal causes cervical abrasion and gingival recession.
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